Well we had our first real snow this weekend and so it's time to admit that winter's here. Because of the location of my greenhouse, this past month has been quite a good growing time; the leaves have fallen off the red oak to the South and so there has been lots of bright warm days with a nice drop in temperature at night. There's lots of Calanthe buds swelling and promising months of bloom; my Laelia autumnalis and anceps are showing full 'spikes', and my Coelogynes are promising a good show, so I'm not at all depressed at the prospect of the next two months ...... February may be tricky though.
I attended two Canadian Shows in the past weeks the Frazer Valley and the Niagara. Frazer Valley made the unusual request to have the COC exhibit at their show, and since Ken Girard (past presi- dent) and I were planning to attend we took up the challenge. It was great fun especially for me as Ken did all the work. We even received an award for our display, which only goes to show what remarkably kind and generous hosts we had! The show had some beautiful orchids that I would have gladly tucked in my suitcase, however there was no more room after I visited the sales room. I found species I'd been looking for all over the east! Thank you again to all those who made our stay so enjoyable.
Niagara was, as always, a lovely show. It is always so encouraging to see so many orchids in bloom in what we tend to think of as an off season - I suspect this has come about due to our growing plants for the spring shows, thus creating lop-sided collections. Again the COC was well represented with Malcolm and Judy Adams putting in a delightful display combining Malcolm's Pleurothallids and Judy's Paphs. AND, of course, our local COC rep. Mario Ferrussi!! Suffice it to say that it was difficult to see parts of his display for the trophies and AOS awards - congratulations Mario.
While in British Columbia, I was approached by both the B.C. Congress and Wally Thomas for the 1999 WOC to discuss the possible benefits of having the COC obtain Charitable Organization status. Since this question has also come up here in the center and east I have asked Howard Ginsberg, our resident lawyer, to look into the question and prepare a report for our annual meeting. I have also asked Wally Thomas and Peter Poot, two past presidents, to form a committee to promote simpler CITES restrictions between the States and ourselves to facilitate the moving of orchids not on CITES I between the two countries. They too will report to us in Winnipeg and may at that time require your support to illustrate to Ottawa the countrywide interest in this topic.
Winnipeg is already working hard on its show plans for our annual meeting in April so circle the dates now - APRIL8-10. Besides some very important COC business decisions to be voted upon, we will have our new annual fundraiser AUCTION, plus two new Annual Meeting COC trophies.
Gordon Heaps tells me that plans are well underway for the meeting there in 1995, and I'm meeting the committee in Halifax to help with suggestions for 1996........... so we're looking ahead! Yet another thank you to Howard Ginsberg for his help in getting the price of the speaker's tour down - it's great to have a friend with contacts.
In closing, I'd like to wish you and your families a happy healthy Christmas and a prosperous New Year. 'Lang may yer lum reek and may the mousie n'er turn frae the pantry wi' a tear in his eye'.
All the best, Annette Babgy.
I genuinely believe that in a previous incarnation I was a carpenter! I love wood! I can go into our local hardwood speciality store (I should say 'could' - alas it is no more - a casualty of the 'recession') and just touch and smell the exotic tree species represented there.
What has this to do with the cultivation of cool growing orchids you may ask? - well, periodically I get this terrible urge to make a piece of furniture and when I returned from a trip to British Columbia in the fall of '91 with an instant collection of Pleurothallids (generously given by members of the Vancouver Orchid Society) I leapt at the opportunity to construct a Wardian Case to house them.
After much reading of books and relevant articles in orchid magazines, and after countless hours of making reams of sketches I zeroed in on a design similar to the case shown in Orchid Growing Illustrated by Brian and Wilma Ritterhausen (page 32). It would be made in my favourite wood - Brazilian Mahogany.
As originally designed, the internal dimensions would be 48 x 30 x 42 inches and would stand on 24 inch legs fitted with castors for easy movement. Access would be by glazed doors in the front and the side panels would also be glazed. The back would be a fixed plywood panel. The base would have a sink drain to get rid of excess moisture which would allow for in situ watering. Lighting would be by 6 wide-spectrum fluorescent tubes.
I purchased sufficient planks of 2 x 8 inch and 1 x 10 inch clear Brazilian Mahogany from Bois Franc Royal in Beloeil (what orchids grew in this magnificent tree I wondered, and how apt that it should still be the home of orchids!) and started work sawing and planing wood to the required dimensions.
I had the basic carcass completed when further reading on Pleurochallid cultivation led me to believe, (or I convinced myself!), that without cooling the range of plants that could be grown in the cabinet would be very limited, since mid-summer day-time temperatures in St. Hilaire can be in excess of thirty Celsius combined with night-time temperatures in the high twenties.
So back to the drawing board! After a load more sketches and consultations with local refrigeration engineers the design was changed to accommodate the required cooling equipment.
A wooden frame mounted below the cabinet would hold the compressor and the cooling unit would be fixed to the inside top of the cabinet. I installed the two units and the refrigeration engineer installed the freon and control system - this part of the installation should not be attempted by an amateur.
The introduction of cooling resulted in major design changes. The negative aspect was in the reduction of the number of fluorescent tubes I could use due to the space taken up by the cooling unit. The whole cabinet had to be insulated (R10), the doors required double glazing, an ultrasonic humidifier was installed to counteract the drying effect of the cooling unit and the glazed side panels were replaced with insulated wood panels.
When the basic cabinet was completed it was finished with 3 coats of clear satin polyurethane which gives a beautiful soft patina.
At the moment the temperature is controlled by a Penn single pole thermostat which means resetting twice a day to maintain the desired temperature range of 65° - 70°F daytime and 45° - 50°F at night. When on vacation the thermostat is set at the mid-point of the range.
The 2 two-tube light fixtures are mounted either side of the cooling unit. The ballasts have been removed from the fixtures and are mounted on the top of the cabinet to avoid heat build-up inside. Even so, the tubes themselves give off some heat which counter-acts the cooling efficiency. The lights are controlled by a heavy duty time switch which is set to give 12 hours light in the winter and 16 hours in the summer.
The plants are housed in a 5-tiered frame using 4" plastic roofing gutters similar to the design shown in a recent AOS Bulletin (February, 1993 - page 166). The gutters are Fitted with end caps that have drainage (overflow) holes drilled in them 1/4" from the bottom. The plant pots stand on strips of egg-crate ceiling panels.
My collection of Pleurothallids at that time - consisting of various Masdevallia, Pleurothallis, Stelis, Porroglossum, Lepanthopsis, Scaphosepalum and Zootrophion as well as an assortment of long suffering Odontoglossums and cool growing Oncidiums - were transfered to their new home and soon responded with fresh growths and flowers. The first Masdevallias to flower were peristeria, wageneriana, and whiteana. Several Pleurothallis, Lepanthopsis and Porroglossum species flowered profusely and some have been in flower continuously ever since!
Plants were grown exclusively in plastic pots with New Zealand sphagnum moss as the growing medium and styrofoam chips for crocking but under the constantly moist conditions inside the cabinet I found that the compost remained WET for a considerable amount of time.
This continual wetness and the possibility of a lack of oxygen at the roots was of some concern to me and my worst fears were realised when leaves began to yellow after about three months. On removing the plants from their pots I found that the roots appeared similar to those grown under hydroponic conditions - white, almost transparent - and some of the older roots were starting to rot.
I experimented with Osmunda fibre as the basis of a growing medium and this seemed to stay almost as wet as sphagnum moss (perhaps a 100% Osmunda medium would work better?). Also, the use of net pots with sphagnum moss proved unsatisfactory since that combinarion dried out much faster than other combinations of pots and medium.
Recently, I have been experimenting with faster draining composts consisting of various amounts of bark, treefern, charcoal, perlite and FloweRock (volcanic) and I have now adopted a mix similar to the one recommended by William Ames Rhodehamel in his book A Masdevallia Cultural Guide' (Hoosier Orchids) for all my Picurothallids. It is as follows:
So far the plants appear to find this mixture to their liking and the plants that had suffered root loss are making new growths
Masdevallias in flower at this time (November, 1993) are whiteana, colossus, peristeria, Confetti, Bockings Hybrid, Charlotte, Alyssa Maria, coccinea x gilbertoi, mejiana x urosalpinx, Angel Frost x velifera, yungasensis x agastar and amabilis x striatella.
Also, citrinella, gilbertoi, andreetana, Ilia Lin, Bibelot, Peppermint Rock, yungasensis x triagularis (Tuakau Striper - reg. pending from L&R), Circe, Suzy Bedford, Doris, Angelita, Kabouter and Chelsonii are in spike.
At the moment the cabinet is more or less air-tight, and while this does not present a problem on a daily basis since the doors are opened several times for spraying and other chores, I feel that it may cause some problems if the doors are left shut for an extended periods of time as when we are on vacation. I intend to introduce a small amount of fresh exterior air, perhaps through the humidifier which has a fan that runs continuously.
The humidifier is housed in a separate compartment within the cabinet (to allow the water container to be replenished from the rear of the cabinet without disturbing the plants) but there is insufficient air circulation causing slow response to drops in humidity levels. It may be necessary to install a separate humidistat inside the growing chamber.
The twice daily change of temperature settings is obviously unsatisfactory and a dual range thermostat or two separate thermostats selected by a time controlled relay will have to be installed.
160 Watts of lighting is definitely not enough for a cabinet designed with vertical shelf spacing of 14" to 28", particularly for the lower shelves. It will be necessary to redesign the shelving to decrease the height or use metal halide or high pressure sodium lighting installed on the exterior of the cabinet and insulated from it by some means. (Mario Ferrusi, of the Niagara 0. S. and an excellent Masdevallia grower, believes that it is more appropriate for this type of cabinet to be long and low - say 8ft long x 2 ft high x 2ft 6inch wide, similar to food cabinets seen in a delicatessens). More on this in part 2!
In spite of the high cost of installing the cooling equipment I feel that the results have made it a worth-while experiment. I am now growing and flowering orchids that in the past would have hovered near death or would have died!
In Part 2, I will describe a second cabinet that I have made - of knock-down design - intended for the dual use of exhibiting as well as growing the so called 'intermediate' Masdevallias. This cabinet is conditioned by a small home-made evaporative cooler and equiped with metal halide lighting. Also, design features of the third cabinet will be decribed.
Malcolm Adams, Eastem Canada Orchid Society
Malcolm Adams and his wife Judy live on Mont St. Hilaire on the South shore (Rive Sud) of the St. Laurent river about 35 km East of Montreal.
Malcolm grows a mixed collection of orchids in a small lean-to greenhouse and an ever growing collection of of Pleurothallids in two home-made cabinets (a third cabinet is on the drawing board)
Judy grows mainly Paphiopedilums and is currently busily engaged in a seed propogation programme of Paph. species.
Getting seeds from pleurothallids can sometimes be a challenge. Among the hurdles to be faced are self and/or inter clonal incompatibility, extreme smallness and sometimes transparency of reproductive parts, and unknown time to capsule maturity. But all is not lost! With a bit of preparation, perserverance and a generous dollop of good fortune, one can be successful.
First, the preparation. LEARN all you can about the plants to be bred. EXAMINE the flowers to determine the position and size of the pollinia and stigma. Some pleurothallids such as Lepanthopsis, Platystele, Pleurothallis, and some species of Stelis have stigmas where you would least expect them, bi-lobed and on either side of the anther, not behind as is most often the case. OBTAIN a magnifier such as a jeweller's loupe or invest in a LUXO® magnifier that will leave both hands free to perform delicate casks. CREATE appropriate tools for pollination. A whittled toothpick, mounted needle or drawn glass filament are possible choices. When possible, perform an OUTCROSS rather than a self pollination, and do the reciprocal cross using the pollen donor also as a pollen recipient. When making a hybrid cross, consider the relative size of pollinia and stigma. Be prepared to split pollinia with a razor blade and use part for tiny stigmas. RECORD information.
Small capsules contain only hundreds or thousands of seeds. Time to dehisence can vary from one to five months. For example, capsules of Masdevallia tovarensis take about 90 days to split while those of Lepanthes take about two months. Species are very consistent: the seed parent generally determines the time to dehisence. A capsule can be harvested just before it is ready to split or one can wait until it splits then collect and surface-sterilize the seed. I prefer to remove the mature capsule before splitting has occured. After surface sterilizing the capsule exterior, open it with one transverse cut of a sterile razor blade, fine scalpel or pointed hobby blade. Pleurothallid seedlings can be quite sensitive to aging media. Replate pleurothallid seedlings frequently to avoid their premature death.
So little is known about the biology of the many pleurothallids that we can all contribute something useful to the mass of knowledge. For example, we can share what we learn about capsule maturation times and compatibility/incomparibility of the species we raise. My floriferous Masd. rubiginosa is nor common to cultivation and has so far proven to be self-incompatible. Perhaps someone has another clone and would be willing to exchange pollen in hope that germinable seed could be produced. Information about capsule development, etc. would be acquired and the species conserved.
Marilyn Light is a member of the Ottawa Orchid Society and is Chairperson of the COC Education Committee. She lives with husband Michael MacConaill in Hull Quebec, on the edge of the Gatineau Park. Marilyn grows her orchids under lights.
Je sais, la plupart d'entre vous sont découragés à l'idée de faire pousser ces beautés miniatures, pourtant si intrigantes. La seule pensée d'être contraint de les garder dans le réfrigérateur, la lumière allumée durant 16 heures, décourage plus d'un orchidophile bien décidé...
Qu'à cela ne tienne, les masdevallia de culture tempérée ou chaude arrivent à la rescousse! En effet, imaginez; des minuscules cerfs-volants de toutes les couleurs, seuls ou en grappe, et pas difficiles à faire pousser et fleurir! Grâce à l'hybridation, il est possible de retrouver les couleurs éclatantes et la dimension des fleurs des espèces de milieu froid dans un plant qui tolère des températures beaucoup plus élevées. La plupart de ces hybrides sont un heureux mélange des meilleures caractéristiques des parents que les hybrideurs ont voulu conserver.
Le genre masdevallia se retrouve en Amérique centrale et du sud, et occupe une niche dont la répartition verticale part du niveau de la mer jusqu'à des altitudes de 4,000 mètres. On voit bien que les différentes espèces se retrouvent soit sous un climat chaud, intermédiaire ou froid. Les espèces dont il est question ici se retrouvent du niveau de la mer jusqu'à 1,900 mètres d'altitude.
Ces plantes affectionnent un milieu constamment humide, sans excès, et qui se draine bien. Je vous recommande de vous servir de pots de plastique ou, pour certaines espèces ou hybrides bien particuliers, d'une plaque de fougère arborescente car leur inflorescence est pendante. Pour les plants adultes, deux milieux d'empotage très convenables sont les suivants:
Pour les semis, utilisez des petits pots de plastique et cultivez-les dans de la mousse de sphaigne de Nouvelle-Zélande que vous ne laisserez jamais se désécher. Ne les arrosez quand même pas en surabondance!
Règle générale, le milieu d'empotage doit partiellement se ressuyer avant d'être de nouveau arrosé, sans jamais sécher complètement: il doit être encore légèrement humide (ce qui fait d'ailleurs penser à la culture des paphiopedilum). La fréquence de l'arrosage dépend de plusieurs facteurs. Le milieu d'empotage, le genre et la grandeur des pots, la lumière et la ventilation, le taux d'humidité relative, les températures diurne et nocturne, et le nombre de racines ont une influence directe. Seules l'expérience et la technique de "l'index enfoncé dans le pot" ou de "la pesée par la levée du pot" peuvent vous aider à determiner la fréquence d'arrosage que demandent vos plantes. Quant à l'engrais, rappelez-vous que ces plantes ont un petit appétit. Fertilisez-les légèrement et rincez régulièrement le milieu d'empotage.
Faites attention à la qualité de votre eau d'arrosage. Dans la municipalité où je demeure, l'eau du robinet est dure; sur une échelle de 1 à 7, c'est-à-dire de la plus douce à la plus dure, elle correspond à un 5,5. Je dois alors avoir recours à l'eau de pluie ou l'eau distillée que j'utilise telles quelles ou que je mélange à l'eau du robinet. Faut les aimer, n'est-ce-pas? Rassurez-vous! Vous n'avez peut-être pas ce problème dans votre localité.
Règle générale, ces plantes n'apprécient pas beaucoup la lumière vive, genre cattleya. Elles préfèrent un niveau à peu près équivalent à celui des paphiopedilum ou phalaenopsis, c'est-à-dire de 800 à 1500 pieds-bougie. Quoi qu'il en soit, surveillez toujours la couleur du feuillage. Il doit être d'un beau vert moyen et lustré. S'il est vert foncé, donnez-leur plus de lumière en les déplaçant de façon graduelle (j'insiste sur le mot "graduelle") vers un endroit plus éclairé. S'il est d'un vert jaunâtre, vérifiez vos habitudes d'arrosage et l'état de votre milieu d'empotage; si tout est correct sur ces deux plans, trouvez-leur un endroit plus ombragé sans attendre.
Températures minimales d'hiver -
Température maximale d'été -
Elles aiment toutes une atmosphère humide (de 60 à 80% d'humidité relative) et bien ventilée, avec un apport d'air neuf, comme la plupart des orchidées d'ailleurs. Lorsque la température et/ou l'humidité augmentent au-dessus des maximum recommandés, vous devez aussi augmenter la ventilation, afin de compenser l'accroissement de ces deux facteurs, et éviter, entre autres, un réchauffement malsain du feuillage et des racines.
Voilà. Pas sorcier, n'est-ce pas? Ce qui suit est une liste des espèces et hybrides qui sont de culture intermédiaire ou chaude. Elle ne prétend pas être exhaustive, mais vous brosse un tableau qui est, je crois, substantial. Vous trouverez des annotations spéciales pour les cas particuliers.
Alors, refermez la porte de votre réfrigérateur, et profitez de ces magnifiques plantes qui me fascinent depuis trois ans!
SOURCE: André Levesque, Orchidophiles de Montréal
ampullacea attenuata ayabacana bicolor brachyura calura chasei collina crescenticola cultiver sur plaque ou en panier suspendu discoidea echo floribunda culture de serre chaude floribunda spp. tuerckheimii culture de serre chaude garciae glandulosa gutierrezii cultiver en pot ou sur plaque herradurae deviser le plant régulièrement, culture de serre tempéré à chaude infracta infracta spp. curtipes kuhniorum livingstoneana culture de serre chaude mejiana cultiver sur plaque minuta culture de serre temérée à chaude naranjapatae cultiver sur plaque nidifica panguiensis cultiver en panier suspendu reichenbachiana rolfeana schroederiana culture de serre, tempérée-froide scabrilinguis striatela strobelli tovarensis tonduzii culture de serre chaude triangularis urosalpinx espèce très vigoureuse wagneriana weberbaueri wendlandiana culture de serre chaude zahlbruckneri cultiver sur plaque
Amethyst (uniflora x glandulosa) Angel Fire (triangularis x ayabacana) tolère bien la chaleur d'été Angel Frost (stroebelii x veitchiania) les fleurs ont besoin d'être tuteurés Angel Glow (Angel Frost x Marguerite) meilleure rigidité de la tige florale que les parents. Fleurit à longueur d'année Angel Tang (veitchiania x tonduzii) Tolère la chaleur Angelita (Angel Frost x sanctae-inesae) Vigoureux florifère. Tolère bien la chaleur Blushing Belle (Angel Frost x uniflora) Butternut (stenorhynchos x Angel Frost) Fleurit longtemps. Tolère la chaleur Cassiope (coccinea x triangularis) Circe (schroederiana x veitchiania) Confetti (stoebelii x glandulosa) Parfumé! De culture chaude à tempérée Copper Angel (veitchiania x triangularis) Tige florale rigide. Excellentes forme et couleur Mardi Gras (Copper Angel x glandulosa) Don's Angel (veitchiana x rolfeana) Falcon (Falcata x triangularis) (floribunda x Copper Angel) ? Peu florifère Freckles (Angel Frost x decumena) Très variable mais très spectaculaire Angel Heart (ignea x infracta) Plus florifèere que Marguerite (infracta x veitchiana) Bon mélange des meilleures qualités des parents. A besoin d'être tuteuré et de plus de lumière pour une production optimale de fleurs Pink Mist (coccinea x strobelii) Fleurit abondamment sur de fortes tiges Red Baron (coccinea x maculata) De culture facile. Tolère la chaleur Redwing (infracta x coccinea) A besoin d'une bonne lumière. Fleurit lorsqu'adulte Sugar Baby (veitchiana x floribunda) Peu florifère Sugar Baby (veitchiana x floribunda var. werckheinii) Beaucoup plus florifère que le précédent Sunny Angel (triangularis x Angel Frost) Vigoureux, florifère et tolère la chaleur Theresita (floribundax Heathii) Peu florifère Oriole (veitchiana x reichenbachiana) Meilleur croisement que Circe Urubamba (ayabacana x veitchiana)
Keith Day, Roundhouse Orchid Nursery 4730 - 127B Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T5A 2M9, (403) 475-4384 Hoosier Orcbids 8440 West 82nd Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46278, (317) 291-6269 Valley Orchid Partners 12621 Woolridge Road, Pitt Meadow, British Columbia V3Y 1Z1, (604) 465-8664 Species West 25825 104th Avenue S.E., Kent, Washington 98031 (206) 854-4082 Mountain Orchids RR #1, Box 390, Ludlow, Vermont 05149 (802) 228-8506 Botanico (Agent pour Highland Tropicals) 2217 Fillmore Street, San Francisco, California 94115, (415) 922-6534 Jamp;L Orchids 20 Sherwood Road, Easton, Connecticut 06612 (203) 261-3772
Sometimes it takes a few years of observation to grow and bloom an orchid really well. I hit upon a method to bloom this Masdevallia purely by chance. Masd. peristeria has thick, leathery (coriaceous) leaves. It can withstand some drying provided the temperature is not too high. I discovered that by keeping this species cool (10°C) and relatively dry for three months in winter, it produces a mass of bloom in the hear of the summer (25°C) without benefit of additional cooling. The greatest hazard is the house fly which is attracted to the foul-smelling flowers and frequently pollinates them. The flowers fade quickly thereafter. I wonder how many other Masdevallias will respond similarly?
While visiting the 1993 Eastern Orchid Congress in Raleigh, North Carolina, I had the opportunity to chat with one of North America's foremost biologists and breeders, Dr. Harold Koopowitz. During our conversation we discussed the status of some of the recently described PaphiopedUum species and I thought that the information that I gleaned was sufficiendy interesting to pass on to other paph.growers:
Paph. braemii - There was a Paph. braemii in the show, which was how the subject came up for discussion. This one was similar to the described plant (illustrated in the Orchid Digest, vol-55 no. 3)but it seems that they are very variable and some are so much like P. tonsum that P. braemii is considered by some authorities to be a variety of the former species.
Paph. richardianum - This is considered to be a variety of P. lowii. It grows in a very limited area, in Palu, Sulawesi, and because of inbreeding has developed slightly different characteristics from the type, but not enough to raise it to specific rank.
Paph. sangii - This plant was described by Guido Braem in 1987. One of the described characteristics was the presence of notches, or 'ears' on the dorsal. However, the 'type plant, when it flowered again the following year, produced a dorsal with a smooth edge, without notches. It seems that the 'ears' were a temporary aberration and thus the type description is incorrect. The status of P. sangii as a species is not affected, though, and I understand that a revised description will be published.
Paph. sriwaniae - The description of this plant was written by Dr. Koopowitz himself and was published in the A.O.S. Bulletin of August 1987. Dr. Koopowitz admits that this was a mistake, although a number of plants were examined before writing the description so it was not a case of only one plant being considered. P. sriwaniae was described as being found in a shipment of P. argus but having a smaller flower with different characteristics. However, when the plants flowered again the following year they all looked like normal P. argus. It would seem that something happened to the plants which caused the aberrant form; alternately, there may have been something different about the chemical composition of the substrate in which they had been growing. In any event, P. sriwaniae is not a valid entity and Dr. Koopowirz will be rescinding the description in due course.
I also heard that Dr. Phillip Cribb is revising 'The Genus Paphiopedilum' to include the latest discoveries and, among other things, is reconsidering the status of P. dianthum which he originally decided was a variety of P. parishii. So, get in a supply of new labels!
Judy Adams - Eastern Canada Orchid Society
Orchids have such beautiful flowers. Some of the most attractive Canadian Orchids, can be found growing in forests, fields, dunes and wetlands. The wetland habitats are threatened and need to be preserved.
This video is a story about orchids and about one man's love of nature. Joe Purdon understood the value of a wetand on his property in eastern Canada, and its need to be conserved. Today, at the Purdon Conservation Area, a large population of the Showy Lady's Slipper exists and can be appreciated by visitors. A management plan ensures that the area will be conserved for future generations.
Running time: 26 minutes 40 seconds
Copyright: © Canadian Orchid Congress 1993. All rights reserved
For information on obtaining a copy of the video "for the Love
of Orchids" contact:
Chairperson, COC Education Committee,
174 Jolicoeur, Hull Quebec J8Z 1C9
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